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Publikācija: The Influence of Glycerol Acetals on the Properties of Mixed Gasoline

Publication Type Publications in RTU scientific journal
Funding for basic activity Unknown
Defending: ,
Publication language Latvian (lv)
Title in original language Glicerīna acetālu ietekme uz jaukto benzīnu īpašībām
Title in English The Influence of Glycerol Acetals on the Properties of Mixed Gasoline
Field of research 1. Natural sciences
Sub-field of research 1.4 Chemical sciences
Authors Raimonds Mūrnieks
Valdis Kampars
Aivars Blūms
Rūta Kampare
Kristaps Māliņš
Zane Ābelniece
Keywords gasoline, acetals, bioethanol, glycerol
Abstract Glicerīns ir biodīzeļdegvielas sintēzes blakus produkts, kura ražošanas apjoms ir strauji pieaudzis, bet pieprasījums saglabājies iepriekšējā līmenī, tādēļ intensīvi tiek meklēti jauni glicerīna izmantošanas virzieni. Viens no tiem varētu būt acetālu un ketālu sintēze un sintēzes produktu izmantošana degvielu piedevu veidā. Šajā darbā sintezēti un pētīti dažādi glicerīna acetāli (etanāla, propanāla, izobutanāla un pentanāla reakcijas produkti ar glicerīnu). Benzīnam šie glicerīna savienojumi pievienoti 5% un 10% daudzumā pēc tilpuma. Pētīta arī tādu pašu piedevu ietekme uz jaukto benzīnu ar 5% un 10% lielu bioetanola saturu īpašībām. Tika noteikti vairāki svarīgi benzīna raksturojumi (tvaika spiediens, frakciju analīze, blīvums) un rezultāti salīdzināti ar standartā LVS EN 228 uzrādītajām vērtībām. Sintezētie savienojumi uzlabo frakciju analīzes līknes formu benzīniem, kuri satur bioetanolu. Kopumā veiktie pētījumi apstiprina, ka glicerīna acetālus var sekmīgi izmantot kā benzīna piedevas.
Abstract in English The by-product of synthesis of the biodiesel is glycerol, for which production quantities have increased, while demand has remained constant. The traditional glycerol market is related to the soap, cosmetics, food and personal-care sectors, which cannot drain these huge amounts of glycerol produced by the biodiesel industry. As a result, new opportunities are sought for increasing amount of glycerol consumption. Glycerol is a good platform for other chemicals, especially oxygenated compounds. Hence, it reacted with ethanal (paraldehyde), propanal, isobutanal and pentanal to produce the corresponding acetals, respectively. These components were blended in 5 and 10 vol.% with gasoline containing 0, 5 and 10 vol.% bioethanol. The blends were subjected to analysis of vapour pressure, distillation curve and density. The results were compared with the values specified in the Latvian standard LVS EN 228. The acetals improved the shape of distillation curve for blends containing bioethanol, approaching those of pure gasoline. The addition of acetals resulted in a reduced saturated vapour pressure and an increased density for all blended gasoline samples. The density specification (0.775 g/cm3) of the Latvian standard LVS EN 228 was met when the quantity of additives did not exceed 5 vol.%, however samples with 10 vol.% of additive fell slightly outside the specification. These results have confirmed that glycerol acetals can be successfully blended with regular gasoline up to 5 vol.%, thereby maintaining conformance with the Latvian standard LVS EN 228 and even allowing improvement over some gasoline properties. As longer hydrocarbon chains tend to raise the boiling point, acetals are of interest as a gasoline additive because they contain substituted linear hydrocarbon chains, which have less than 4 carbon atoms.
Reference Mūrnieks, R., Kampars, V., Blūms, A., Kampare, R., Māliņš, K., Šustere, Z. The Influence of Glycerol Acetals on the Properties of Mixed Gasoline. Materials Sciences and Applied Chemistry. Vol.25, 2012, pp.91-94. ISSN 1407-7353. e-ISSN 2255-8713.
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